Geology can also include the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other Earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences , and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated Earth system science and planetary science. Geology describes the structure of the Earth on and beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics , the evolutionary history of life , and the Earth's past climates. Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work , rock description , geophysical techniques , chemical analysis , physical experiments , and numerical modelling.
Relative dating — Science Learning Hub
The main difference between absolute and relative dating is that the absolute dating is a technique to determine the numerical age of a rock or a fossil whereas the relative dating is a technique that determines the relative age. Furthermore, absolute dating can be done with the use of radiometric dating while relative age is determined with respect to other layers. The four techniques used in absolute dating are radiometric dating, amino acid dating, dendrochronology, and thermoluminescence. Figure 1: Radiocarbon Date Calibration Curve. Relative dating is the technique used to determine the age by comparing the historical remaining to the nearby layers.
Telling Time at Grand Canyon National Park
Its southern coast is on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. It is a federal republic comprising 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory , where the capital, Abuja , is located. Lagos is the most populous city in the country and the African continent, as well as one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world. Nigeria has been home to several indigenous pre-colonial states and kingdoms since the second millennium BC, with the Nok Civilization having been the first time the country had been unified internally in the 15th Century B. The modern state originated with British colonialization in the 19th century, taking its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in by Lord Lugard.